So, you’ve finally had enough of tossing and turning at night, trying to find that elusive comfortable position for your aching shoulders. It’s time to put an end to those sleepless nights and invest in a latex mattress topper designed specifically for shoulder pain relief.
With a plethora of options available, it can be overwhelming to figure out which one will actually make a difference. But fear not, because we’ve done the legwork for you and narrowed down the 10 best latex mattress toppers for shoulder pain relief.
Each of these toppers has unique features and benefits that could be the solution you’ve been searching for to finally get a good night’s sleep.
1. Avocado Green Mattress Eco Organic Latex Mattress Topper
- Upgrade or rejuvenate any mattress with natural latex.
- Deliver comfort, luxury, and pressure-point relief for aching hips and shoulders.
- Medium firmness, GOLS-certified organic Dunlop latex, made with 95% or more organic materials
- Meets non-toxic standards: MADE SAFE, eco-INSTITUT, OEKO-TEX, Greenguard Gold, and Formaldehyde-Free.
For those seeking a mattress topper that provides comfort, luxury, and targeted pressure-point relief for hips and shoulders, the Avocado Eco Organic Latex Mattress Topper in medium firmness, 3 inches thick, and Queen size offers an ideal solution.
This topper is made with GOLS-certified organic Dunlop latex and meets non-toxic standards, ensuring a safe and healthy sleep environment. Its 3-inch thickness provides ample cushioning for pressure relief, particularly for shoulders and hips, allowing for a restful night’s sleep.
The topper extends the life of a mattress without altering its support and doesn’t trap heat or produce unsafe emissions. Additionally, it’s available with an organic jersey knit or an elegant zipper cover, offering versatility to suit different preferences.
The Avocado Eco Organic Latex Mattress Topper aligns with lofty MADE SAFE standards, making it a reliable and eco-friendly choice for enhancing sleep quality and comfort.
Best For: Those seeking a natural and eco-friendly solution for enhancing sleep quality and comfort.
- GOLS-certified organic Dunlop latex
- Meets non-toxic standards
- Provides targeted pressure-point relief for hips and shoulders
- Relatively heavy at 43.2 pounds
2. Sleep On Latex Pure Green Natural Latex Mattress Topper
- Firm - Provides Strong Pinpointed Support
- Adjusts to Your Body Instantly - Latex Foam Naturally Stays Cool
- Made of Natural Latex Harvested from Organically Grown Rubber Trees - Covered in Luxurious Organic Cotton Cover
- Pre-Shrunk Organic Cotton Cover is Machine Washable
- GOTS Certified Organic (Global Organic Textile Standard) - GOLS Certified Organic (Global Organic Latex Standard) - Fair For Life Fair Trade Certified
The Pure Green Natural Latex Mattress Topper – 3 Inch – Queen Size provides firm, targeted support, making it an ideal choice for individuals seeking relief from shoulder pain. This topper, designed by Sleep On Latex, is made of natural latex harvested from organically grown rubber trees.
Its firmness offers strong pinpointed support, potentially alleviating pressure on the shoulders. The latex foam naturally stays cool, which is beneficial for maintaining a comfortable sleeping temperature. Covered in a luxurious organic cotton cover, it also carries certifications such as GOLS Certified Organic and GOTS Certified Organic, ensuring high-quality and sustainable materials.
Customer reviews highlight its ability to firm up softer beds without creating discomfort and its suitability for various sleeping positions. With its focus on support and comfort, this mattress topper may be a valuable addition for those experiencing shoulder pain.
Best For: Those seeking firm, targeted support and relief from shoulder pain.
- Provides strong pinpointed support
- Adjusts to your body instantly, staying cool
- Made of natural latex harvested from organically grown rubber trees
- May be too firm for some side or back sleepers
3. TalatexHome Premium Natural Latex Mattress Topper
- [SIGNIFICANTLY RELIEF SHOULD&BACK PAIN] Designed for back and side sleepers, Superior support with natural latex bounce back properties, providing essential support across all body parts, superior pressure relief for sleepers with chronic back and hip pains.
- [GREAT MOTION ISOLATION] Adjusts to Your Body Instantly, without making a noise. You wont be impacted by your bedmate, suitable for people who easily wake up at night
- [TEMPERATURE NEUTRAL & BREATHABLE]-The latex topper comes with an Open Cell Structured Design, which greatly promotes air flow ventilation and significantly reduces overheating. Cool during summer and fairly warm during winter.
- [Complete sleep system with Talatex Talalay Latex Pillows] Designed to act as a sleep support system to maximize the comfort and support for our sleepers, this mattress topper works best with our Talatex Talalay Pillows to provide a unified support system across the head, cervical, back, hip and leg areas.
- [Made from 100% high quality Thai latex with 11 global certifications]: Rest assured that our mattress topper is made from 100% high quality Thai latex. It has undergone rigorous testing and holds 11 global certificates, such as 100% natural latex certification by OEKO-TEX. This is a testament to the mattress' exceptional quality, durability and sustainability.
Ideal for those seeking relief from shoulder and back pain, the TalatexHome Premium Natural Latex Mattress Topper (3 Queen) provides superior support and comfort for back and side sleepers. This 100% high-quality Thai latex topper is designed to alleviate pressure points, offering the perfect balance of firmness and cushioning for a restful night’s sleep. Its natural latex bounce-back properties ensure excellent support, while the moisture-wicking and breathable fabric enhance temperature neutrality.
The topper’s organic cotton inner cover adds to the overall comfort and quality. With 11 global certifications, including 100% natural latex certification by OEKO-TEX, this topper guarantees exceptional quality, durability, and sustainability. Customers have reported improved sleep quality and relief from back pain, praising its springy and comfortable nature.
With a 30-night risk-free trial and excellent customer support, the TalatexHome Premium Natural Latex Mattress Topper is a top choice for those seeking pain relief and optimal sleep comfort.
Best For: Those seeking relief from shoulder and back pain without sacrificing comfort and support.
- Superior support and comfort for back and side sleepers
- Natural latex bounce-back properties for excellent support
- Moisture-wicking and breathable fabric for temperature neutrality
- Some customers may find it expensive
4. Take Ten Organic 100% Natural Latex Mattress Topper
- Organic Latex Mattress Topper: Made with 100% natural latex for a firm yet comfortable feel.
- Includes Organic Cover: Comes with a cotton cover for added durability and softness.
- Water Resistant: Latex construction prevents moisture from seeping through.
- Child and Adult Use: Suitable for use by both children and adults.
- Take Ten Brand: Part of the Take Ten brand known for quality bedding.
If you seek a mattress topper that offers firm support and relief from shoulder pain, the organic latex mattress topper with organic cover is an excellent choice. This topper has received positive feedback for its ability to eliminate hip and back pain, providing better sleep and comfort. Users have reported that it doesn’t cause overheating and offers firmness and support for the back and body.
In comparison with other mattress toppers, the organic latex option is preferred for its cooler, more comfortable, and supportive nature. It also provides pain relief, making it a desirable option for those experiencing shoulder pain. The topper comes with an organic cover and is available in different thickness options, making it suitable for use as a mattress topper or primary mattress.
Delivery has been seamless, and customers are satisfied with the overall experience.
Best For: Individuals seeking firm support and relief from shoulder pain without overheating.
- Eliminates hip and back pain
- Provides better sleep and comfort
- Cooler and more comfortable than other toppers
- Higher cost compared to other toppers
5. Turmerry Egg Crate Latex Mattress Topper
- Thoroughly Organic
- Terrific Pressure Relief
- Crisp Cooling
- Impeccable Support
- Elegant Craft
For those seeking an organic and eco-friendly solution to alleviate shoulder pain, the ‘Latex Mattress Toppers for Shoulder Pain Relief’ offers a comfortable and supportive option.
The Egg Crate Mattress Topper by Turmerry, designed in a Queen size with 2.4 inches of medium firmness, is made from organic latex. This product is thoroughly organic, providing terrific pressure relief and crisp cooling. It offers impeccable support while being environmentally friendly and absolutely safe.
The topper has received positive feedback for improving sleep quality by addressing heat retention. However, some users found the 2.4-inch height too soft, leading to discomfort and back issues. It’s important to consider personal preferences when selecting the appropriate firmness level.
Additionally, this topper has versatile uses, such as providing comfort on lift chairs, suiting individuals with severe allergies, and offering additional padding for camper van beds without excessive bulk.
Best For: Individuals seeking an organic, eco-friendly, and medium-firm mattress topper for pressure relief and improved sleep quality.
- Thoroughly organic and eco-friendly
- Terrific pressure relief and crisp cooling
- Versatile uses for additional comfort in various settings
- Some users may find the 2.4-inch height too soft
6. Plushbed 100% Natural Talalay Mattress Topper
- GREAT VALUE FOR THE MONEY: Our 100% Natural Latex Topper is a cost effective way to make your existing mattress more comfortable without replacing the whole mattress. It is made up of finest quality 100% natural latex. “The cover is not included with the topper”.
- LUXURIOUS COMFORT AND SUPERIOR SUPPORT: Place plush mattress topper on top of your mattress for luxurious comfort, soothing pressure relief and superior support. Our Talalay latex topper fits right on top of your bed, underneath your sheets. With a 3-inch thickness, it adds a supportive layer while still allowing you to slightly feel your mattress underneath.
- RIGHT KIND OF FIRMNESS FOR A COMFORTABLE SLEEP: Our 100% natural latex is odor free which makes it great for allergy sufferers. Extra Firm topper is for Over 250lbs or those who enjoy very firm surfaces.
- SUPERIOR PRESSURE RELIEF, SLEEP COOLER: Our cushiony, comfy pure natural latex topper is soft, elastic, and optimized for pressure point relief, providing forgiving support for your shoulders, hips, back, and knees. The open-cell airflow design also provides better heat distribution, while at the same time absorbs the shock of partner body movement, keeping you cool and comfortable all night long.
- MADE IN USA ENSURING HIGHEST QUALITY STANDARDS: Our toppers are hand-crafted with pride in the USA, and our certifications by OEKO-TEX Standard 100 and GreenGuard Gold ensure the highest product quality standards throughout the manufacturing and distribution process.
The PlushBeds 3 Extra-Firm Topper is an excellent choice for individuals seeking superior support and pressure relief. It is constructed with 100% natural Talalay latex, making it ideal for those who prefer very firm surfaces or weigh over 250lbs.
The topper is 3 inches thick, providing luxurious comfort and soothing pressure point relief. It effectively supports the shoulders, hips, back, and knees. The open-cell airflow design ensures better heat distribution, making it a great option for people who tend to sleep hot.
In addition to its comfort features, the topper also absorbs the shock of partner body movement, allowing for an undisturbed night’s sleep. It is odor-free and great for allergy sufferers, with certifications by OEKO-TEX Standard 100 and GreenGuard Gold.
While the topper does not include a cover, it offers great value for the money and is a cost-effective way to make an existing mattress more comfortable.
Best For: Individuals seeking very firm support and pressure relief, especially those over 250lbs or with a preference for firm surfaces.
- Luxurious comfort and pressure relief
- Open-cell airflow design for better heat distribution
- Odor-free and great for allergy sufferers
- Doesn’t include a cover
7. Organic Textiles Organic Latex Mattress Topper
- Quality: Made with 100% organic material, this topper is durable and strong all while helping to support a sustainable planet!
- Comfortable: This mattress topper is designed with air ventilation and pressure point elimination for a cost-effective and peaceful sleep.
- Lifestyle: Our products are constructed with all-natural material free of toxic additives, it is suitable for family members of any age including kids with sensitive skin.
- Design: Extra thick, comfortable, and cushioning, this topper is crafted for optimal comfort and a good night's sleep.
- GOLS Certified: Ensuring that individuals involved in making our products have fair wages, ethical living conditions, health benefits and overall concern for the environment and community
Experience shoulder pain relief with the Organic Textiles Organic Latex Mattress Topper, 3 Inches Queen, Firm (GOLs Certified Organic Materials), designed to provide optimal comfort and support for individuals seeking a firm and cushioning solution.
Made from 100% organic material, this topper offers durability and strength. Its design includes air ventilation and pressure point elimination for peaceful sleep. Suitable for all family members, including those with sensitive skin, it’s extra thick, comfortable, and cushioning for optimal comfort.
GOLS certification ensures fair wages, ethical living conditions, health benefits, and environmental concern. Users have reported that it provides good, organic sleep and is superior to memory foam. While some users have mentioned a strong rubber off-gas smell, proper airing out before use can resolve this issue.
This topper is an ideal choice for those seeking firmness and cushioning for shoulder pain relief.
Best For: Individuals seeking a firm and cushioning solution for shoulder pain relief.
- Made from 100% organic material for durability and strength
- Offers air ventilation and pressure point elimination for peaceful sleep
- Suitable for all family members, including those with sensitive skin
- Some users have reported a strong rubber off-gas smell
8. Turmerry 7-Zone Organic Latex Mattress Topper
- Turmerry uses a refined Dunlop Process to mold latex which gives superior support
- No cover included - zippered cover can be purchased separate from the same seller. Waterproof organic mattress topper fitted sheet style protector cover is also available from us.
- 5 Zone Support - Soft on shoulders, with the perfect support and pressure point relief for back and hips to reduce pain and aches. Great for couples as it helps with motion isolation.
- Soften your bed or make bed firmer with soft, medium and firm toppers. Extra firm mattress firming pad and flippable dual firmness non toxic toppers available in other listings.
- This cooling organic mattress topper is available in twin, twin xl, full, queen, king and california king sizes. 2 inch and 3 inch mattress topper options.
Ideal for those seeking superior support and pressure point relief for their shoulders and back, the Turmerry Organic Latex Mattress Topper (Queen / 3 inch/Firm) offers a comfortable and eco-friendly solution.
Utilizing a refined Dunlop process to mold latex, this topper provides excellent 5-zone support, with a soft surface for shoulders and optimal support for the back and hips, aiding in pain reduction and aches. Additionally, it’s beneficial for couples, as it helps with motion isolation.
The topper comes in various firmness options, allowing customization for individual needs. While it doesn’t include a cover, a zippered cover can be purchased separately. Customer reviews highlight the topper’s excellent support and comfort, particularly for individuals with connective tissue issues. However, some customers noted strong odor and challenges with returns.
Warranty information and customer support options are available for further assistance.
Best For: Individuals seeking superior support and pressure point relief for shoulders and back.
- 5-zone support with soft surface for shoulders and optimal support for back and hips
- Eco-friendly and organic alternative to traditional toppers
- Suitable for individuals with connective tissue issues
- Strong odor reported by some customers
9. Latex Sleep Therapy Original Talalay Latex Mattress Topper
- ORIGINAL Talalay Latex, Made in the USA, All Sizes Available
- Pin Core Shape for Enhanced Air Flow & Comfort: 2" and 3" Thick
- Topper Size: Queen 60 x 80"
- Densities: Soft, Med-Soft, Medium, Medium-Firm, and Firm
If you’re seeking a latex mattress topper that offers firm support and minimal off-gassing, the Queen Original Talalay Latex Mattress Pad Topper (3 Thick, 44 ILD Firm) may be the ideal choice for alleviating shoulder pain. This topper, manufactured by Latex Sleep Therapy, is well-regarded for its comfort, coolness, and durability. Customers have found it to be a high-quality product with minimal off-gassing, making it suitable for those with sensitivities.
However, some users have reported issues such as chipping and deterioration over time, as well as difficulty in contacting the manufacturer for support. It’s worth noting that one user experienced itching after sleeping on the topper, raising concerns about a possible latex allergy. Despite these concerns, the majority of users have found the Queen Original Talalay Latex Mattress Pad Topper to be a beneficial addition to their sleep environment.
Best For: Those seeking a firm, durable latex mattress topper with minimal off-gassing and sensitivity to shoulder pain.
- Comfortable and supportive firmness
- Minimal off-gassing compared to other products
- Durable and well-made construction
- Possible deterioration and chipping over time
10. Latex Mattress Factory 100% Natural Latex Mattress Topper
- Naturally Supportive: 100% Natural dunlop latex and proven pressure relieving support.
- Exceptional Material: Extremely durable, and environmentally sustainable bedding material.
- Provides support for those who prefer a more supportive mattress.
- Firmness 38 ILD - 5.31 lbs. / cubic ft.
The 100% Natural Latex Mattress Topper – Firm – 3 Queen is an ideal choice for those seeking firm support and pressure relief for shoulder pain. This durable and environmentally sustainable topper offers a cooler sleeping surface compared to other options on the market. Certified by Oeko-Tech and Eco-Institute, it’s free from harmful compounds, ensuring a safe and healthy sleep environment.
Available in different thicknesses and firmness levels, including Firm, it provides customizable comfort. The product dimensions of 80 x 60 x 3 inches make it suitable for a Queen-sized bed. Customers have reported positive experiences with this topper, citing relief from back pain and satisfaction with its firmness.
While the topper may be slightly heavy and require assistance during setup, its benefits for shoulder pain relief and overall comfort make it a worthwhile investment.
Best For: Those seeking firm support and pressure relief for shoulder pain.
- Provides customizable comfort with different thicknesses and firmness levels
- Offers relief from back pain
- Certified by Oeko-Tech and Eco-Institute, ensuring a safe and healthy sleep environment
- May be slightly heavy and require assistance during setup
Factors to Consider When Choosing Latex Mattress Toppers for Shoulder Pain
When choosing a latex mattress topper for shoulder pain relief, you should consider the differences between latex and memory foam, as well as the level of support and firmness needed for your shoulders.
Additionally, look for cooling properties to prevent discomfort and consider the eco-friendliness of the material.
These factors play a crucial role in ensuring the mattress topper effectively alleviates shoulder pain.
Latex Vs. Memory Foam
When selecting latex mattress toppers for shoulder pain relief, consider the contrasting features of latex and memory foam to make an informed decision based on your specific comfort and support needs.
Latex toppers offer a more responsive and bouncy feel, providing a supportive surface that prevents sinking and maintains proper spinal alignment. They also sleep cooler than memory foam due to their open-cell structure, promoting better temperature regulation. Additionally, latex toppers are naturally hypoallergenic and resistant to mold and dust mites, making them a great option for allergy sufferers.
On the other hand, memory foam toppers excel in pressure relief, conforming to the body’s shape and offering excellent cushioning for pressure points, which can be beneficial for shoulder pain.
Both materials have their unique benefits, so it’s essential to weigh these factors against your specific needs for optimal shoulder pain relief.
Shoulder Pain Relief
To ensure effective relief for shoulder pain, carefully assess the firmness and support level of the latex topper you’re considering. Look for a latex topper that offers superior support and pressure-point relief for shoulders and hips to alleviate discomfort.
Opt for a topper that provides temperature neutrality and breathability to prevent overheating and promote a comfortable sleep environment. Check for certifications like GOLS, OEKO-TEX, and eco-INSTITUT to ensure the latex topper meets non-toxic and purity standards.
Consider the thickness and material of the latex topper, as well as any additional features such as moisture-wicking and breathability for enhanced comfort. By paying attention to these factors, you can select a latex topper that effectively relieves shoulder pain and promotes better sleep quality.
Consider the firmness level of a latex mattress topper as a crucial factor in providing strong and pinpointed support for your shoulders, contributing to improved sleep quality and shoulder pain relief. Firm latex foam can alleviate back pain and stiffness for side and back sleepers, offering superior support and pressure point relief. This makes it suitable for individuals with shoulder pain.
The design of firm latex toppers ensures motion isolation, making them ideal for those who prefer a very firm sleeping surface. Opting for a firm latex topper can enhance support for the shoulders, hips, back, and knees, promoting better sleep quality.
Considering the importance of temperature regulation for a comfortable sleep experience, the cooling properties of latex mattress toppers play a significant role in alleviating shoulder pain.
Latex mattress toppers are renowned for their ability to provide a cooler sleeping surface, making them an ideal choice for individuals who tend to sleep hot. Thanks to the natural latex material and its temperature-neutral and breathable properties, these mattress toppers allow for better heat distribution and a cooler sleeping experience.
The open-cell airflow design further enhances their cooling properties, making them well-suited for those who prioritize temperature regulation during sleep. Numerous customers have attested to experiencing cooler sleep and improved comfort with latex mattress toppers, emphasizing their effectiveness in creating a refreshing and supportive sleeping environment.
This can be particularly beneficial for individuals seeking relief from shoulder pain.
When selecting a latex mattress topper for shoulder pain relief, it’s essential to prioritize eco-friendly materials certified to meet high environmental and non-toxic standards, ensuring a sustainable and healthy sleep experience.
Eco-friendly material refers to the use of organic and sustainable materials in the production of latex mattress toppers. These materials are often certified to meet environmental and non-toxic standards such as GOLS (Global Organic Latex Standard) and OEKO-TEX.
Latex mattress toppers made from eco-friendly materials are biodegradable, recyclable, and free from harmful chemicals, making them a sustainable choice. Choosing an eco-friendly latex mattress topper can contribute to reducing environmental impact and promoting a healthier sleeping environment.
Look for eco-friendly certifications and labels when selecting a latex mattress topper to ensure it meets high environmental and safety standards.
In selecting a latex mattress topper for relieving shoulder pain, it’s important to carefully consider the available thickness options to best address your individual needs and preferences. Thicker options can provide more substantial support and pressure relief for shoulder pain, making them a suitable choice for individuals seeking enhanced firmness.
However, thinner options may still offer benefits while maintaining a softer feel, which could be preferable for those who prefer a more plush sleeping surface.
It’s essential to factor in your existing mattress’s thickness and firmness when choosing the topper’s thickness to ensure compatibility and a seamless transition. Additionally, bear in mind that thicker toppers may more significantly alter the overall feel and firmness of the mattress, so it’s crucial to evaluate the desired level of modification to your current sleeping arrangement.
Certifications and Standards
Looking for certifications such as GOLS (Global Organic Latex Standard) and OEKO-TEX is crucial when choosing a latex mattress topper to ensure its organic and non-toxic nature. Additionally, consider mattress toppers certified by eco-INSTITUT, Greenguard Gold, and MADE SAFE to ensure they meet non-toxic standards and are free from harmful emissions.
Opt for mattress toppers with a high percentage of organic materials and GOLS certification for organic content to ensure environmental sustainability and non-toxicity. It’s important to choose mattress toppers that are formaldehyde-free and meet specific standards like OEKO-TEX, ensuring they’re free from harmful chemicals and safe for use.
Moreover, consider certifications and standards such as GOLS certification to ensure the mattress topper meets the highest global organic latex standards for purity and sustainability.
Customers’ experiences with latex mattress toppers for shoulder pain relief indicate significant improvements in comfort and support, making them a valuable consideration for enhancing sleep quality and alleviating discomfort.
Reports highlight the relief from shoulder and back pain, particularly with natural latex and organic materials. Many customers praise the comfort, pressure relief, and temperature neutrality of latex mattress toppers, especially when compared to memory foam.
The preference for latex mattress toppers over other types is evident due to their ability to provide comfort, support, and pain relief. Positive feedback emphasizes the benefits of natural latex, including improved sleep quality, reduced back pain, and a cooler sleeping surface.
Additionally, customers express satisfaction with the firmness, support, and durability of latex mattress toppers, recommending them as a solution for discomfort and enhancement of the overall sleeping experience.
Frequently Asked Questions
Are These Latex Mattress Toppers Suitable for People With Allergies to Latex?
Yes, these latex mattress toppers are suitable for people with latex allergies. They are designed to be hypoallergenic and are often made with a blend of natural and synthetic latex to reduce the risk of allergic reactions.
Can These Mattress Toppers Be Used on Adjustable Beds?
Yes, these mattress toppers can be used on adjustable beds. They are designed to conform to various bed positions, providing support and comfort. This feature ensures that you can enjoy the benefits of the topper regardless of your bed’s adjustability.
How Do I Clean and Maintain These Latex Mattress Toppers?
To clean and maintain your latex mattress topper, spot clean with mild detergent and water, then air dry. Use a mattress protector to prevent spills and stains. Rotate the topper every 3-6 months to ensure even wear and support.
Do These Mattress Toppers Come With a Warranty or Satisfaction Guarantee?
Yes, these mattress toppers come with a warranty or satisfaction guarantee. The warranty typically covers manufacturing defects, while the satisfaction guarantee allows you to return the topper if you’re not completely happy with it.
Are There Any Specific Recommendations for the Type of Mattress to Use These Toppers With for Maximum Comfort and Support?
For maximum comfort and support, consider using a medium-firm or firm mattress with the latex mattress toppers. This combination can provide the right balance of cushioning and support to help alleviate shoulder pain and promote better sleep.
In conclusion, when choosing a latex mattress topper for shoulder pain relief, consider factors such as thickness, firmness, and material quality.
The Avocado Eco Organic, Pure Green Natural, and TalatexHome Premium toppers are all excellent options to consider.
Whether you prefer a medium or firm feel, there are various latex mattress toppers available to help alleviate shoulder pain and improve your overall sleep quality.
Make sure to select the best option based on your specific needs and preferences.